- Passive hub: This is a simple device that acts as a central connection point for devices on a network. It does not amplify or regenerate the signals that pass through it, so it is not very efficient at moving data over long distances.
- Active hub: This type of hub includes an amplifier or repeater, which helps to regenerate the signals that pass through it. This makes it more efficient at moving data over long distances and can improve the overall performance of the network.
- Intelligent hub: This type of hub includes additional features, such as the ability to manage the network and monitor network traffic. It may also have the ability to connect to the internet and provide additional services, such as a firewall or VPN support.
- Switching hub: This type of hub is similar to an intelligent hub, but it has the ability to forward data packets to specific devices on the network rather than broadcasting them to all devices. This makes it more efficient at moving data and reduces network congestion.
In terms of how a network hub works, it operates at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. It receives data packets from devices on the network and forwards them to the appropriate destination. When a device sends a data packet to the hub, the hub broadcasts the packet to all devices on the network. The intended recipient of the packet recognizes its own address and processes the packet, while the other devices ignore it.
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